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The most direct effect of residential inequality is an inequality of neighborhood amenities. Neighborhood amenities include factors such as the conditions of surrounding houses, the availability of social networks, the amount of air pollution, the crime rate, and the quality of local schools.[16] A neighborhood with a certain quality of amenities typically includes individual residences of corresponding quality. It follows then that those with lower incomes usually end up living in areas with poor amenities in order to win the spatial competition for housing. Apart from the intrinsic value of neighborhood amenities like the satisfaction derived from living in a nice area, many studies suggest that growing up in a high poverty neighborhood affects social and economic outcomes later in life.[17] Another way that the poor compete in the spatial competition for housing is by renting homes rather than buying them. This furthers the negative effects of housing inequality by restricting access to household wealth.[18] The effects of housing inequality are necessarily related to economic inequality as they greatly affect the freedoms available to an individual.

Proposed remedies[edit]

There have been a number of plans proposed to remedy the negative effects of housing inequality. Such plans include:

International housing inequality[edit]

While the focus of housing inequality has changed over time, contemporary international analyses tend to center on Urbanization and the move to metropolitan areas. International housing inequality is largely characterized by urban disparities. A 2007 UN-HABITAT[19] report estimated that over one billion people worldwide lived in slums at the time, with that figure expected to double by 2030. In developing countries, housing inequality is increasingly caused by rural-to-urban migration, increasing urban poverty and inequality, insecure tenure, and globalization.[20] All of these factors contribute to the creation and continuation of slums in poorer areas of the world. One proposed solution to slums has been proposed in the form of Slum upgrading.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sen 2004 p. 61
  2. ^ Pryce 2009 p. 145
  3. ^ Yinger 2001p. 360
  4. ^ Sen 1999 p. 87
  5. ^ Sen 2004 p. 61
  6. ^ Yinger 2001 p. 367
  7. ^ Sen 1999 p. 18
  8. ^ Yinger 2001
  9. ^ Yinger 2001p. 360
  10. ^ Yinger 2001 p. 363
  11. ^ Shapiro 2005
  12. ^ Shapiro 2005 p. 176
  13. ^ Yinger 2001 p. 376
  14. ^ Yinger 1997 p. 23
  15. ^ Yinger 1997 p. 32
  16. ^ Yinger 2001 p. 362
  17. ^ Yinger 2001 p. 368
  18. ^ Krivo and Kaufman 2004
  19. ^ UN-HABITAT 2007
  20. ^ UN-HABITAT